Rinderpest virus was introduced into Africa in through cattle imported to Abyssinia now Ethiopia from India to provision European colonial armies. Bioweapon threats to biodiversity Efforts to control human disease epidemics resulting from plague and tularemia bioweapon attacks will need to take into account the eradication of potential animal reservoirs and insect vectors once initial outbreaks among human populations have been contained Alibek and Handelman The history of bovine tuberculosis and rinderpest in Africa and brucellosis in North America shows that exotic diseases may be difficult or impossible to eradicate once they have been introduced and have become established in wild species within new localities.
Saprolegnia ferox, a common oomycete disease of hatchery-reared fishes, has been implicated as a factor in disease-related population declines of amphibians in northwestern North America Kiesecker et al. Government-sponsored scientific research into the development of technologically sophisticated applications of biological weapons for use against humans, livestock, and crops began during the early decades of the 20th century.
Canine distemper is a common viral disease of domesticated dogs that can spill over into wildlife populations, with appalling results on susceptible species of wild carnivores. The loss of diversity, genes, species and ecosystems that are responsible for the basis for future variation or adaptation, will have both major economic and social values Heywood, During the past decade, canine distemper outbreaks resulted in the extinction of the last known wild population of the North American black-footed ferret and the African wild dog population of the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania Daszak et al.
And it is essential that all of these threats are comprehensively discussed in the biological warfare essay. Most government bioweapons programs included research on the culture and testing of disease agents intended specifically for use against livestock and food crops Ban Although WNV is primarily a disease of birds, mammals are common secondary but dead-end hosts for this virus.
A biological warfare essay looks into the details pertaining to the history, development, threats and other issues surrounding bio weapons. During the 14th century, Mongol armies catapulted the infected corpses of plague victims over the walls into the besieged city of Caffa, in what is now the Crimea, to try to force the surrender of the city's inhabitants.
Bioweapon applications are only the most extreme example of the larger invasive species problems associated with the introductions of exotic diseases and organisms to new areas as the result of deliberate or inadvertent human activities. Perhaps the oldest traditional application of bioweapon techniques has been the contamination or poisoning of drinking water sources using animal carcasses, human cadavers, feces, or poisonous plants and their derivatives.
Traditional cattle-raising and farming societies, such as the Sukuma and Samburu peoples of eastern Africa and the Ndebele and Zulu peoples of southern Africa, were also severely affected by the rinderpest epidemic.
Unfortunately biodiversity loss is the growing crisis, throughout the world. The small resident population of endangered cheetah Acinonyx jubatus. Steps taken internationally and regionally to ban the usage of weapons The usage of bio weapons have been internationally banned by most countries of the world due to its destructive nature and threat to humanity, some landmark decisions to curb the usage of these weapons include: Writers should discuss the impact of the viruses used to make such weapons on all living beings.
The American elm Ulmus americana is another characteristic and formerly common tree of eastern North American landscapes that has also been driven to virtual extinction by an introduced fungal pathogen, the Dutch elm disease Ophiostoma Ceratocystis ulmi.
The former USSR sponsored extensive research on possible bioweapons applications of a variety of fungal diseases of important food crops wheat stem rust, rice blastviral and bacterial diseases of domesticated livestock e. Conservation of biodiversity necessitates retaining, upholding and restoring ecosystem functions and processes BSC An outbreak of distemper in the Serengeti region of Tanzania during the early s caused the extirpation of the resident wild dog population and the death of approximately one-third of the Serengeti's resident lion population.
WNV infections have been reported from numerous species of both wild and domesticated mammals e. Biological weapons bioweapons are defined as biological organisms, and substances derived directly from living organisms, that can be used to cause death or injury to humans, animals, or plants.
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A biological weapon is a virus, bacteria are used to cause a serious injuries and death to others in wars. After using some of these biological weapons in the last two centuries; during the First World War, the Second world war and The Gulf War many people fought against using these weapons because they are harmful to humans and leave a.
Biological Warfare I believe that biological warfare should not be option in war because it is expensive, it could cause a major death toll, and could cause major contamination to anything that is left over after biological weapons are used.
The usage of Biological weapons is a thorny issue, especially during the twentieth and twenty-atheist. And it has caused much controversy in political and of human rights purview. A biological weapon is a virus, bacteria are used to cause a serious injuries and death to others in wars.
It is necessary to start a biological warfare essay giving a background of the development of such weapons; one should research into the history where there has been mention of usage of these weapons of mass destruction in the in Hittite transcript of BC, the First Sacred War and as well as in the legendary epic of the Trojan War.
Writes should. Biological Weapon Effects on Biological Diversity "The cost of developing small-scale but nonetheless sophisticated bioweapons facilities and arsenals is in the range of $10, to $," (Dudley ). Natural viruses are readily and inexpensively available and have just as much capability as other viruses to disrupt the biological diversity.
erosion of genetic diversity in domesticated plants, the destruction of traditional human livelihoods” (p. ). Later on in the article, they report that current biological weapons arsenals include diseases that are highly infectious and contagious, easily deployed, and capable of high morbidity and mortality in human and animal populations.Biological weapon effects on biological diversity essay